Regarding the conflict btw Christian and Stoic philosophy, I am agnostic about the degree to which they are incompatible, but some Christian authors clearly think they are: https://www.indiebound.org/book/9780300180121
That early Christian thinkers were influenced by Stoicism is certainly true. That does not necessarily imply that the two philosophies are compatible in terms of their metaphysics.
There are clearly divergent opinions on the meaning of prayer. I respect your interpretation, but I think you would hard pressed in showing that it is *the* correct one. Certainly, empirically speaking, many believers take prayer to be intercessory. (I was raised Catholic, I speak also from personal experience.)
Even if Jesus knew the tree wouldn’t bear fruit, why curse it? Why not pull one of his miracles instead?
All of the above said, thanks for your comments, I will think more about them. And for what is worth, I do think Stoicism and Christianity are compatible from the point of view of their ethics, which is what matters the most.